сторінка 98 вправа 3 гдз 10 клас англійська мова Буренко 2018
Відповідь до p. 98 ex. 3:
Ukraine is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multiparty system. On August 24, 1991, Ukraine proclaimed its independence and during the referendum held on December 1, 1991, the Ukrainian people confirmed their choice of independent development. Executive power is conducted by the Government and the President. Legislative power belongs to Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament). Leonid Kravchuk was elected the first president of independent Ukraine.
Ukraine faced a multitude of very difficult tasks which had to be solved within a short period of time, such as the building of a new political system, new statehood principles, a new system of national security and defence. The Ukrainian Constitution was adopted in 1996. According to the Constitution Ukraine is a sovereign, independent, democratic, jural state and the main task of this state is to establish and promote human rights and freedoms.
The Constitution envisages the principles of the political, economic and ideological diversity of social life. State power is divided into the legislative, executive and judicial branches acting within their competence.
Ukraine is a unitary state, and its territory is integral and inviolable. The state has a single citizenship. The state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian.
The Constitution of Ukraine designates the President as the Head of the State acting on its behalf. The President is also a guarantor of civil and human rights and freedoms, national sovereignty, territorial integrity, adherence to the Constitution. The President is elected by the citizens of Ukraine every five years on the basis of equal and direct universal suffrage through a secret vote.
The only legislative body of Ukraine is the Parliament (Verkhovna Rada). Ukrainian citizens elect delegates to Verkhovna Rada every five years. Deputies are elected at single-mandate constituencies (this kind of elections may be rejected) and at multi-mandate national constituencies from the lists of candidates coming from political parties or their election blocks. The range of Ukrainian political parties reflects European traditions. These parties are the Green Party, Republican Party, Democratic Party, Peasant-Democratic Party, Christian-Democratic Party, For Life Party, Socialist Party and others.
Verkhovna Rada consists of 450 deputies. Deputies have the right to unite into special groups that are named factions. These factions consist of deputies who share the same or similar views of national, social and economic development. The Constitution of the country establishes the power of Ukrainian deputies.
Since 1996 Ukraine's political landscape has changed greatly. We will mention only one of the last changes.
In 2016 Verkhovna Rada adopted major amendments to Ukrainian legislation as a part of long-awaited judicial reform. Changes were designed to prevent corruption in the court system of Ukraine:
1. Simplification of the court system. The reform of the court system involves transition from a four-level court system to a three-level one, which is composed of courts of original jurisdiction, courts of appeal and the newly established Supreme Court.
2. Excluding the political component when deciding whether to sanction the arrest or detention of a judge. From now on, only the High Council of Justice, not Verkhovna Rada, can authorise an arrest or detention, except for detentions of judges during or immediately after committing a serious or grave crime. That also means that judges do not have full immunity anymore.
3. Implementation of advocate monopoly. Only the attorneys will be entitled to represent clients in Ukrainian courts, subject to a few limitations.
4. A new procedure for appointment of judges. Judges are appointed to office by the President upon the recommendation of the High Council of Justice for an unlimited term.