сторінка 100 вправа 4 гдз 11 клас англійська мова Буренко 2019
Відповідь до p. 100 ex. 4:
In barely two decades, the Internet has transformed the way we communicate, search, learn and shop. But is that a good thing? Jon Henley meets the sceptic who believes the Internet is making fools and victims of us all.
During every minute of every day of 2014, according to Andrew Keen's new book, the world's Internet users - all three billion of them - sent 204 million emails, undertook four million Google searches, shared 2,46 million pieces of Facebook content, published 277,000 tweets, posted 216,000 new photos on Instagram and spent $83,000 on Amazon. For a network that has existed recognisably for barely 20 years the numbers are astonishing: the Internet, plainly, has transformed our lives, making so much of what we do every day - communicating, shopping, finding, booking - unimaginably easier than it was.
So it takes a brave man to argue that there is another side of the Internet. Keen, who was once so sure that the Internet was the answer that he sank all he had into a start-up, is now a thoughtful a contrarian who believes the Internet is actually doing untold damage. The net, he argues, was meant to bring "power to the people, a platform for equality". Instead, it has handed extraordinary power and wealth to a tiny handful of people, while simultaneously, for the rest of us, compounding existing inequalities - cultural, social and economic. Individually, it may work wonders for us. Collectively, it's doing no good at all. "It was supposed to be a win-win, Keen declares. "The network's users were supposed to be its beneficiaries. But in a lot of ways, we are its victims".
The numbers Keen reels off are eye-popping: Google, which now handles 3,5 billion searches daily and controls more than 90 % in some countries, including Britain, was valued at $400bn last year - seven times more than the General Motors, which employs nearly four times more people. Its two founders, Larry Page and Serhii Brin, are worth $30bn apiece. Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, head of the world's second biggest Internet site - used by 19 % of people in the world, half of whom access it six days a week or more - is sitting on a pile, while at $190bn in July last year, his company was worth more than Coca-Cola, Disney and AT&T.
Jeff Bezos of Amazon is also worth $30bn. Uber, a five-year-old start-up employing about 1,000 people, was valued last year at more than $18bn - roughly the same as Hertz and Avis combined. The 700-staff lodging rental site Airbnb was valued at $10bn.
Part of the problem here, argues Keen, is that the digital economy is, by its nature, a winner takes all. "There are just certain structural qualities that mean the Internet lends itself to monopolies. The Internet is a perfect global platform for free-market capitalism - a pure, friction-less, borderless economy". Keen cites San Francisco writer Rebecca Solnit's incisive take on Google: "Imagine it is 100 years ago, and the post office, the phone company, the public libraries, the printing houses, Ordnance Survey maps and the cinemas were all controlled by the same secretive and unaccountable organisation. Plus, he adds, "Google doesn't just own the post office - it has the right to open everyone's letters".
This, Keen argues, is the net economy's natural tendency: "Google is the search and information monopoly, Uber's about being the transport monopoly; Airbnb is the hospitality monopoly. These are all, ultimately, monopoly plays - that's the logic. And that should worry people". It is already having consequences, Keen says, in the real world. Take surely the most a glaring example - Amazon. Keen's book cites a 2013 American survey which found that while it takes, on average, a regular bricks and mortar store's 47 employees to generate $10m in turnover, Jeff Bezos's many-tentacled, all-consuming and completely ruthless "Everything Store" achieves the same with 14. Amazon, that report concluded, probably destroyed 27,000 US jobs in 2012.
"And we love it", Keen says. "We all use Amazon. We strike this Faustian deal. It's ultra-convenient, fantastic service, great interface, absurdly cheap prices. But what's the cost? Truly appalling working conditions; we know this. Deep hostility to unions. A massive impact on independent retail; savage bullying of publishers. Amazon has told us what we want to hear. Bezos says, "This is about you, the consumer". The problem is, we're not just consumers. We're citizens, too".
(Adapted from The Guardian, 9 February 2015)