сторінка 238 вправа 4 гдз 11 клас англійська мова Морська 11 рік 2019


Відповідь до p. 238 ex. 4:

In 1999, Miguel Sanchez, a retired Spanish civil engineer, while watching a television documentary on the construction of Egypt's ancient pyramids was struck with an idea. "It was the same pyramid-building stuff-old theories, but he wasn't satisfied as an engineer," says his son, Eduardo, a freelance architect.
Eduardo Sanchez was determined to prove the validity of his father's idea by using computer-based 3-D modeling, and taking the Great Pyramid at Giza for his model, Eduardo was able to begin constructing his father's work. Questions gathered in his mind and urged him to look deeper in the riddle that has bewildered humankind for ages: how exactly was the Great Pyramid built? There is a fierce argument about this point and he can finish the work.
Four thousand five-hundred years ago, The Great Pyramid rose on the heights of Giza plateau, near Cairo, to be home to the pharaoh Khufu. Originally 481 feet high and spanning 13 acres it remains as the lone survivor of the "seven wonders" of the ancient world. Modern architects and engineers marvel at the precision, especially in light of the available resources. Without the benefit of wheels, pulleys and iron tools, the pyramid's 2.9 million dolomite blocks, weighing several tons were cut and hauled into place by strictly human efforts.
These efforts have impressed mankind through all the ages. But the belief that slaves did the work has long been losing credibility. Researchers now believe the pyramids were huge public works projects where every household in the kingdom was expected to provide workers, food and supplies.
Sanchez consulted with Egyptologists for authentication of his 3-D models of the pyramid keeping construction faithful to methods of the past and accepted knowledge in the field. Several years into the project, Nova De La Punta, a Spanish software company that makes 3-D models for marine engines and home appliances, became interested and offered support in May at a press conference in Madrid, Sanchez revealed the results of his study, which has not yet been published in a scientific journal. The audience wore 3-D glasses to follow Sanchez through his rendition of the Great Pyramid as he explained his view of how it was built.
As Sanchez sees it, things worked a little differently: to begin with, workers started by pulling the stones up a straight ramp and assemble the large stone blocks for the pyramid's base layers, by then, nearly two-thirds of the structure's total volume would be finished which took about twelve years. Next came the construction of the interior portion, King's Chamber. This has amazed engineers particularly too, due to the separate engineering obstacle. The ceiling relied on sturdy granite struts weighing up to 60 tons each.
The final stage is the most radical and most disputed. Sanchez proposed that the builders reached the steep upper layers of the pyramid by means of spiraling internal ramps, or tunnels. Stone blocks from the external ramp, he believes, were cut smaller to fill the top spaces. "At the end you have no waste," he says. "That's why we never found any remains at the site."
Sanchez plans to prove his theory. He has arranged to test for the presence of tunnels using non-invasive technologies such as infrared photography, radar and sonar, which can detect gaps in solid structures by measuring density differences. Permission from Egyptian authorities should come within the next year or two.