сторінка 62 вправа 2 гдз 11 клас англійська мова Морська 11 рік 2019
Відповідь до p. 62 ex. 2:
1. D 2. H 3. E 4. C 5. F 6. B 7. A
Before the development of the electric toaster, sliced bread was toasted by placing it in a metal frame or a long-handled fork and holding it near a fire or kitchen grill. Simple utensils for toasting bread over open flames appeared in the early 19th century.
In 1905, Irishman Conor Neeson of Detroit, Michigan, and his employer, American chemist, electrical engineer William Hoskins of Chicago, Illinois, invented chromel, an alloy from which could be made the first high-resistance wire of the sort used in all early electric heating appliances (And many modern ones).
The first electric bread toaster was created by Alan MacMasters in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1893, Crompton, Stephen J. Cook & Company of the UK marketed an electric, iron-wired toasting appliance called the Eclipse. Early attempts at producing electrical appliances using iron wiring were unsuccessful, because the wiring was easily
melted and a serious fire hazard. Meanwhile electricity was not readily available, and when it was, mostly only at night. The first US patent application for an electric toaster was filed by George Schneider.
In 1913, Lloyd Groff Copeman and his wife Hazel Berger Copeman applied for various toaster patents and in that same year the Copeman Electric Stove
Company introduced the toaster with automatic bread turner. The company also produced the "toaster that turns toast".
Before this, electric toasters cooked bread on one side and then it was flipped by hand to toast the other side.
Set the heating element on a timer, which turned off the heating element automatically after the bread toasted, I using either a clockwork mechanism or a bimetallic strip. However, the toast was still manually lowered and raised from the toaster via a lever mechanism.
In 1925, using a redesigned version of Strite's toaster, the Waters Genter Company introduced the first automatic pop-up, household toaster that could brown bread on both sides simultaneously, slowly raising the finished toast and eject the toast when finished.
By the middle of the 20th century, some high-end U.S. toasters featured automatic toast lowering and raising, with no levers to operate - simply dropping the slices into the machine commenced the toasting procedure. A notable example was the Sunbeam model, which used the mechanically multiplied thermal expansion of the resistance wire in the center element assembly to lower the bread. When the toast was done, as determined by a small bimetallic sensor actuated by the heat passing through the toast, the heaters were shut off and the pull-down mechanism returned to its room-temperature position, the next development was the semi-automatic toaster.